Thursday, April 29, 2010

Jenis-jenis penghendap

Petikan dari Sexual Harassment Support.


Ini adalah senarai jenis jenis Stalker dan pattern patternnya.

taken from Google.


(Note:  The following 6 categories have been defined by P. E. Mullen.  However, even Mullen asserts that 
these are not entirely mutually exclusive groupings, and the placement of an individual is a matter of 
judgment.  Like 
sexual harassers, stalkers may fit more than one profile, or begin with one approach 
and move to another. )





Rejected Stalker

The most common, persistent and intrusive of all stalkers, the rejected stalker is obsessed with 
someone who is a former romantic partner or friend, and  who has ended their relationship with the 
stalker, or indicates that he or she intends to end the relationship.  Depending on the responses of the 
victim, the stalkers goals will vary, and the rejected stalker usually struggles with the complex desire for 
both reconciliation and revenge.   As Mullen writes,  "A sense of loss could be combined with frustration, 
anger, jealousy, vindictiveness, and sadness in ever-changing proportions."  This stalker may be very 
narcissistic, and may feel humiliated by the rejection.  In most cases, they will have poor social skills 
and  a poor social network.  They are also the most likely to try to harm the victim in some way, and may 
employ intimidation and assault in their pursuit.  They may become jealous if their victim enters or 
continues a romantic relationship with another person.  A history of violence in the relationship with the 
partner is not uncommon.


Resentful Stalker

This stalker is looking for revenge against someone who has upset them--it could be someone known 
to the stalker or a complete stranger.   The behaviors are meant to frighten and distress the victim.   The 
stalker views the target as being similar to those who have oppressed and humiliated them in the past, 
and they may view themselves as someone striking back against an oppressor.   Or, the victim could be 
a professional believed to have cheated or abused the stalker in some way.  Often irrationally paranoid, 
this kind of stalker can be the most obsessive and enduring.  While the least likely to use physical force, 
the resentful stalker is the most likely to verbally threaten the victim.  They may use personal threats, 
complaints to law enforcement and local government, property damage, theft or killing of pet, letters or 
notes on the victim's car or house, breaking into the victim's house or apartment, or watching the victim's 
movements.



Predatory Stalker

The least common of all the stalkers, this is the classic sexual predator whose plan is to physically or 
sexually attack the victim.  They are motivated purely by the desire for sexual gratification and power over 
their victim. This type of stalker is sexually deviant, has poor social skills, and usually has lower than 
normal intelligence.  They usually will not have any direct contact with the victim while they are stalking 
them.  This stalker may engage in such behaviors as surveillance of the victim, obscene phone calls, 
fetishism, voyeurism, sexual masochism and sadism, exhibitionism.  The victim can be either someone 
the stalker knows, or a complete stranger.


Intimacy Seeker

The intimacy seeker seeks to establish an intimate, loving relationship with their victim.  To them, the 
victim is a long sought-after soul mate, and they were meant to be together.   Also, they may have the 
delusion that the victim is in love with them--usually called erotomania.  They may interpret any kind of 
response from the victim as encouragement, even negative responses.  This stalker may write letters, 
send gifts, or  call their victim.  They may believe the victim owes them love because of all they have 
invested in stalking them, and is very resistant to changing their beliefs.  The intimacy seeker has an 
inflated sense of entitlement, and if they recognize they are being rejected, this stalker may become 
threatening, or may try to harm the victim in some way, sometimes using violence. (In this way, they may 
become a rejected stalker, see above.)  This stalker may become jealous if their victim enters or 
continues a romantic relationship with another person.  After the rejected stalker, the intimacy seeker is 
the most persistent type of stalker.  They are usually unresponsive to legal sanctions, viewing them as 
challenges to overcome that demonstrate their love for the victim.


Incompetent Suitor

The Incompetent Suitor desires a romantic or intimate relationship with the victim but is impaired in their 
social and courting skills.  This stalker may be very narcissistic, and cut off from victim's feelings (lack of 
empathy).  The incompetent believes  that anyone should be attracted to them.   Typically, this stalker will 
repeatedly ask for dates, or call on the phone, even after being rejected.  They may attempt physical 
contact by trying hold the victim's hand or kiss the victim, however, the will not become physically violent 
or threatening.  The incompetent suitor is less persistent than others, and is likely to have stalked 
numerous others in the past, and will probably do so in the future.   They will quickly stop stalking if 
threatened with legal action or after receiving counseling.  



Erotomaniac and Morbidly Infatuated

This stalker believes that the victim is in love with them.  They believe this even though the victim has 
done nothing to suggest it is true, and may have made statements to the contrary.  The erotomaniac 
reinterprets what their victim says and does to support the delusion, and is convinced  that the imagined 
romance will eventually become a permanent union.  This stalker may suffer from acute paranoia, and 
typically chooses a victim of higher social status.  They will repeatedly try to approach and communicate 
with their supposed lover, and is typically unresponsive to threats of legal action of any kind.   Without 
psychological treatment, this stalker is likely to continue with their activities.


Cyberstalking and Cyberstalkers

Cyberstalking is an extension of the physical act of stalking; however, the behavior occurs using 
electronic mediums, such as the Internet and computer sypware.   Someone who is physically stalking 
an individual may employ cyberstalking as another means to pursue, harass, or force contact.  Or, 
cyberstalking may be the sole means of surveillance and pursuit of the victim.  The stalker may join 
forums they know their target frequents, and pose as someone else in an attempt to contact their target, 
or they may contact other members to get information about the target or defame their character.   They 
may use spyware to access their target's computer and the personal information contained within.  
Given the vast distances that the Internet spans, a "pure" cyberstalker will never move beyond electronic 
mediums and into physical stalking.  Still, this does not mean that the behavior is any less distressing, 
frightening, or damaging, and a cyberstalker's motives can fit any of the categories described above.  
Moreover, given the ability of individuals to ‘mask’ their identity when using the Internet, linking the 
harassment to one particular individual can be difficult. Programs that mask  IP (Internet Protocol) 
addresses, and anonymous remailers are merely two examples that hinder the identification of the 
stalker and their (digital) location.
Who Becomes a Stalker

Stalkers are usually isolated and lonely, coming from the "disadvantaged" of our society; however, a 
stalker can occupy any place in our entire social spectrum. Often, the stalking may be triggered by a 
significant trauma or loss in the life of the perpetrator, usually within at least seven years of the stalking 
behavior.   (For example, relationship dissolution or divorce, job termination, loss/potential loss of a 
child, or an ill parent.)  Most stalkers are not psychotic.  In a comparative study of psychotic versus non-
psychotic stalkers (Mullen et al. 1999), 63% of the sample was found to be suffering from a common 
psychiatric condition, such as major depression, personality disorder, or substance dependence--with 
personality disorder being the most common diagnosis.


Ex-intimates:  Common stalkers are people who previously shared a romantic relationship with the 
victim, and former intimates are the most common type of stalking target.   This can be either from a 
long or short term relationship.


Family members: A stalker may target a member of their family, such as a parent or sibling.   This would 
most likely be a resentful or rejected stalker, and they would target a family member they feel had 
rejected,  humiliated, or abused them in the past.


Friends and Acquaintances:  The victim may be stalked by an intimacy seeker or an incompetent suitor 
motivated by a desire to start a romantic relationship with the victim.  The victim may be stalked by a 
resentful stalker, typically a neighbor, who may be involved in a disagreement with the victim about 
something such as noise, the location of a tree, or pets.


Workplace Contacts:  In their study of stalkers, Mullen (et al) found that 23% had a professional 
relationship with their victim, most often a medical practitioner.  Other stalkers may be supervisors, 
fellow employees, service providers, clients, or others who show up at the victim's workplace.   Stalking 
behaviors directed at the victim may include:  sexual harassment, physical and sexual assaults, 
robberies, or even homicide.  A violent workplace stalker usually has a history of poor job performance, 
a high rate of absenteeism, and a record of threats and confrontations with people they resent in the 
workplace.  





Note : Sudah baca ? So, anda tergolong didalam jenis yang mana ? :)

2 comments:

Hazzy Ishak said...

aku penah kena
tapi masih tak pasti apa motif dia
memang kurang ajar mamat tu

xRaafikx said...

woah. sounds bad. dia buatpe kat ko ?